Volume 3, Issue 1 (Feb 2018)                   JNFS 2018, 3(1): 51-59 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Abdollahi S, Razmpoosh E, Toupchian O, Salehi-Abargouei A. Nutritional Status of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Iran: A Narrative Review. JNFS. 2018; 3 (1) :51-59
URL: http://jnfs.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-124-en.html
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
Abstract:   (3170 Views)
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive condition that affects many aspects of patient’s life with adverse outcomes of kidney failure, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and premature death. Malnutrition is a relatively common problem in these patients that may be the result of inadequate intake, increased catabolism, or loss of nutrients in the dialysis. The aim of this study was to review the nutritional status and requirements of CKD patients in Iran using previous studies. Methods: Search engines including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Science Direct, Google scholar, Magiran, and scientific information database (SID) were applied with keywords such as chronic kidney disease, malnutrition, renal disease, end stage renal disease, nutritional deficiency, malnutrition, quality of life, vitamin deficiency, wasting, and Iran to find related articles published up to 2016. Results: The persistence of malnutrition increases susceptibility to infectious and cardiovascular diseases, delays wound healing, and finally increases morbidity and mortality. Conclusion: Considering the importance of nutritional status in patients with chronic kidney disease, it is necessary to design and development of more effective strategies to optimize nutritional status of these patients.
Full-Text [PDF 501 kb]   (761 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (783 Views)  
Type of article: review article | Subject: public specific
Received: 2017/05/13 | Published: 2018/01/30 | ePublished: 2018/01/30

1. Ahari S, et al. 2007. Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients at Ardebil University of Medical Science (Arums) and Factors affecting it. Research journal biological science. 2 (5): 529-533.
2. Allen KL, et al. 2002. Association of nutritional markers with physical and mental health status in prevalent hemodialysis patients from the HEMO study. Journal of renal nutrition. 12 (3): 160-169.
3. As habi A, Tabibi H, Hedayati M, Mahdavi-Mazdeh M & Nozari B 2011. Association of energy-protein malnutrition with risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in hemodialysis patients. Iranian journal of nutrition sciences & food technology. 6 (2): 0-0.
4. Ashourpour M, et al. 2012. Assessment of Vitamin and Mineral Intake and Some Related Factors in Hemodialysis Patients Referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran. Iranian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 13 (6): 607-613.
5. Bonanni A, et al. 2011. Protein-energy wasting and mortality in chronic kidney disease. International journal of environmental research and public health. 8 (5): 1631-1654.
6. Cano N, et al. 2009. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: adult renal failure. Clinical nutrition. 28 (4): 401-414.
7. Carrero JJ, et al. 2007. Comparison of nutritional and inflammatory markers in dialysis patients with reduced appetite. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 85 (3): 695-701.
8. Chazot C & Kopple JD 1997. Vitamin metabolism and requirements in renal disease and renal failure. In Nutritional management of renal disease, pp. 415-477. Williams & Wilkins Baltimore, MD.
9. Cho J-H, Hwang J-Y, Lee S-E, Jang SP & Kim W-Y 2008. Nutritional status and the role of diabetes mellitus in hemodialysis patients. Nutrition research and practice. 2 (4): 301-307.
10. Chobanian AV, et al. 2003. The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: the JNC 7 report. Journal of the American medical association. 289 (19): 2560-2571.
11. Chung S, Koh ES, Shin SJ & Park CW 2012. Malnutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease. Open journal of internal medicine. 2: 89-99.
12. Cibulka R & Racek J 2007. Metabolic disorders in patients with chronic kidney failure. Physiological research. 56 (6): 697-705.
13. Combarnous F, et al. 2002. Albumin loss in on-line hemodiafiltration. The international journal of artificial organs. 25 (3): 203-209.
14. den Hoedt CH, et al. 2014. Clinical predictors of decline in nutritional parameters over time in ESRD. Clinical journal of the American society of nephrology. 9 (2): 318-325.
15. Dong J, Li Y, Xu Y & Xu R 2011. Daily protein intake and survival in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Nephrology dialysis transplantation. 26 (11): 3715-3721.
16. Feroze U, et al. 2011. Quality-of-life and mortality in hemodialysis patients: roles of race and nutritional status. Clinical journal of the American society of nephrology. 6 (5): 1100-1111.
17. Fouque D, et al. 2008. A proposed nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for protein–energy wasting in acute and chronic kidney disease. Kidney international. 73 (4): 391-398.
18. Gracia-Iguacel C, et al. 2014. Defining protein-energy wasting syndrome in chronic kidney disease: prevalence and clinical implications. Nefrologia. 34 (4): 507-519.
19. Gracia-Iguacel C, et al. 2013. Prevalence of protein-energy wasting syndrome and its association with mortality in haemodialysis patients in a centre in Spain. Nefrologia. 33 (4): 495-505.
20. Hamer RA & El Nahas AM 2006. The burden of chronic kidney disease. Beritish medical journal. 332 (7541): 563-564.
21. Hosseinpanah F, Kasraei F, Nassiri AA & Azizi F 2009. High prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Iran: a large population-based study. BMC public health. 9 (1): 1-8.
22. Hsu C-y 2002. Epidemiology of anemia associated with chronic renal insufficiency. Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension. 11 (3): 337-341.
23. Ikizler TA, et al. 2013. Prevention and treatment of protein energy wasting in chronic kidney disease patients: a consensus statement by the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism. Kidney international. 84 (6): 1096-1107.
24. Ikizler TA, Flakoll PJ, Parker RA & Hakim RM 1994. Amino acid and albumin losses during hemodialysis. Kidney international. 46 (3): 830-837.
25. Kalantar-Zadeh K, et al. 2006. Epidemiology of dialysis patients and heart failure patients. In Seminars in nephrology, pp. 118-133. Elsevier.
26. Kalantar-Zadeh K & Ikizler TA 2013. Let them eat during dialysis: an overlooked opportunity to improve outcomes in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Journal of renal nutrition. 23 (3): 157-163.
27. Kalantar-Zadeh K, Kopple JD, Deepak S, Block D & Block G 2002. Food intake characteristics of hemodialysis patients as obtained by food frequency questionnaire. Journal of renal nutrition. 12 (1): 17-31.
28. Kalantar‐Zadeh K, Mehrotra R, Fouque D & Kopple JD 2004. Poor Nuritional Statous and Inflammation: Metabolic Acidosis and Malnutrition‐Inflammation Complex Syndrome in Chronic Renal Failure. In Seminars in dialysis, pp. 455-465. Wiley Online Library.
29. Khajehdehi P, Malekmakan L, Pakfetrat M, Roozbeh J & Sayadi M 2014. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its contributing risk factors in southern Iran: A cross-sectional adult population-based study. Iranian journal of kidney diseases. 8 (2): 109-115.
30. Kim Y, et al. 2013. Relative contributions of inflammation and inadequate protein intake to hypoalbuminemia in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. International urology and nephrology. 45 (1): 215-227.
31. Kloppenburg WD, de Jong PE & Huisman RM 1999. Low calorie intake in dialysis patients: an alternative explanation. American journal of kidney diseases. 33 (6): 1202-1203.
32. Kopple JD 2001a. The National Kidney Foundation K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for dietary protein intake for chronic dialysis patients. American journal of kidney diseases. 38 (4): S68-S73.
33. Kopple JD 2001b. National kidney foundation K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for nutrition in chronic renal failure. American journal of kidney diseases. 37 (1): S66-S70.
34. Kovesdy CP & Kalantar-Zadeh K 2009. Why is protein–energy wasting associated with mortality in chronic kidney disease? In Seminars in nephrology, pp. 3-14. Elsevier.
35. Kramer H, Toto R, Peshock R, Cooper R & Victor R 2005. Association between chronic kidney disease and coronary artery calcification: the Dallas Heart Study. Journal of the American society of nephrology. 16 (2): 507-513.
36. Leinig CE, et al. 2011. Predictive value of malnutrition markers for mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. Journal of renal nutrition. 21 (2): 176-183.
37. Levey A, et al. 2007. Chronic kidney disease as a global public health problem: approaches and initiatives–a position statement from Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes. Kidney international. 72 (3): 247-259.
38. Levey AS, et al. 2005. Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: a position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney international. 67 (6): 2089-2100.
39. London GM, et al. 2003. Arterial media calcification in end-stage renal disease: impact on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Nephrology dialysis transplantation. 18 (9): 1731-1740.
40. Mak R, et al. Wasting in chronic kidney disease. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2011; 2: 9-25. Journal of cachexia sarcopenia muscle. 2 (1): 9-25.
41. Mardani M, Rezapour P, Baba H, Balavar S & Naghdi N 2016. The nutritional status of hemodialysis patients admitted to Khoramabad’s Shohadie Ashaier hospital, Korramabad, Iran. Journal of preventive epidemiology. 1 (1): 1-5.
42. Mazairac AH, et al. 2011. Protein-energy nutritional status and kidney disease-specific quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Journal of renal nutrition. 21 (5): 376-386. e371.
43. McClellan W, et al. 2006. Racial differences in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Cohort Study. Journal of the American society of nephrology. 17 (6): 1710-1715.
44. Mitch WE & Goldberg AL 1996. Mechanisms of muscle wasting—the role of the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. New England journal of medicine. 335 (25): 1897-1905.
45. Najafi I, et al. 2012. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its associated risk factors: the first report from Iran using both microalbuminuria and urine sediment. Archives of Iranian medicine. 15 (2): 7075.
46. Pakpour AH, et al. 2010. Health-related quality of life in a sample of Iranian patients on hemodialysis. Iranian journal of kidney diseases. 4 (1): 50-55.
47. Pasdar Khoshknab Y & Keshavarz S 1996. Nutritional status of hemodialysis patients. Improvement journal. 1: 20-26.
48. Piper CM 1985. Very-low-protein diets in chronic renal failure: nutrient content and guidelines for supplementation. Journal of the American dietetic association. 85 (10): 1344-1346.
49. Pollock CA, et al. 1997. Protein intake in renal disease. Journal of the American society of nephrology. 8 (5): 777-783.
50. Pourghaderi M, et al. 2015. Nutritional Indicators and Some Related Factors in Hemodialysis Patients Referred to Hospitals Covered by Alborz University of Medical Science, Summer 91. Alborz university medical journal. 4 (1): 1-10.
51. Raggi P, et al. 2002. Cardiac calcification in adult hemodialysis patients: A link between end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease? Journal of the American college of cardiology. 39 (4): 695-701.
52. Raimundo P, Ravasco P, Proença V & Camilo M 2006. Does nutrition play a role in the quality of life of patients under chronic haemodialysis? Nutrición hospitalaria. 21 (2): 139.
53. Ros S & Carrero JJ 2013. Endocrine alterations and cardiovascular risk in CKD: is there a link. Nefrologia. 33 (2): 181-187.
54. Safarinejad MR 2009. The epidemiology of adult chronic kidney disease in a population-based study in Iran: prevalence and associated risk factors. Jjournal of nephrology. 22 (1): 99-108.
55. Sarnak MJ, et al. 2003. Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease a statement from the American Heart Association Councils on kidney in cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure research, clinical cardiology, and epidemiology and prevention. Circulation. 108 (17): 2154-2169.
56. Shinaberger CS, et al. 2008. Is controlling phosphorus by decreasing dietary protein intake beneficial or harmful in persons with chronic kidney disease? The American journal of clinical nutrition. 88 (6): 1511-1518.
57. Shlipak MG, et al. 2003. Elevations of inflammatory and procoagulant biomarkers in elderly persons with renal insufficiency. Circulation. 107 (1): 87-92.
58. Sprenger K, et al. 1983. Improvement of uremic neuropathy and hypogeusia by dialysate zinc supplementation: a double-blind study. Kidney international. supplement. 16: S315-318.
59. Steiber AL & Kopple JD 2011. Vitamin status and needs for people with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease. Journal of renal nutrition. 21 (5): 355-368.
60. Stevens LA, Coresh J & Levey AS 2008. CKD in the elderly—old questions and new challenges: World Kidney Day 2008. American Journal of kidney diseases. 51 (3): 353-357.
61. Su C-T, et al. 2013. Changes in anthropometry and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients in the HEMO Study. American journal of kidney diseases. 62 (6): 1141-1150.
62. Tabibi H, As’ habi A, Heshmati BN, Mahdavi-Mazdeh M & Hedayati M 2012. Prevalence of protein-energy wasting and its various types in Iranian hemodialysis patients: a new classification. Renal failure. 34 (10): 1200-1205.
63. Taghdir M, et al. 2011. Assessment of Energy and Protein Intake and Some of the Related Factors in Hemodialysis Patients Referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital. Iranian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 13 (6): 690-696.
64. USRDS U 1999. Renal data system 1999 annual data report. The National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Bethesda, MD.
65. Vanholder R, et al. 1993. Depressed phagocytosis in hemodialyzed patients: in vivo and in vitro mechanisms. Nephron. 63 (4): 409-415.
66. Vanholder R & Ringoir S 1993. Infectious morbidity and defects of phagocytic function in end-stage renal disease: a review. Journal of the American society of nephrology. 3 (9): 1541-1554.
67. Vos PF, et al. 2006. Effect of short daily home haemodialysis on quality of life, cognitive functioning and the electroencephalogram. Nephrology dialysis transplantation. 21 (9): 2529-2535.
68. Wang AY-M, et al. 2003. Important factors other than dialysis adequacy associated with inadequate dietary protein and energy intakes in patients receiving maintenance peritoneal dialysis. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 77 (4): 834-841.
69. Wang AY-M, et al. 2001. Independent effects of residual renal function and dialysis adequacy on actual dietary protein, calorie, and other nutrient intake in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Journal of the American society of nephrology. 12 (11): 2450-2457.
70. Wang AY-M, et al. 2007. Nutrient intake during peritoneal dialysis at the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong. American journal of kidney diseases. 49 (5): 682-692.
71. Wen CP, et al. 2008. All-cause mortality attributable to chronic kidney disease: a prospective cohort study based on 462 293 adults in Taiwan. The lancet. 371 (9631): 2173-2182.
72. Zhang L, et al. 2011. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin suppresses systemic inflammation and muscle atrophy in mice with chronic kidney disease. The FASEB journal. 25 (5): 1653-1663.
73. Zhang L, Wang XH, Wang H, Du J & Mitch WE 2010. Satellite cell dysfunction and impaired IGF-1 signaling cause CKD-induced muscle atrophy. Journal of the American society of nephrology. 21 (3): 419-427.
74. Zhang Q-L & Rothenbacher D 2008. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in population-based studies: systematic review. BMC public health. 8 (1): 1-13.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2015 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Nutrition and Food Security

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb