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Marzban A, Khabiri F. Breakfast and Obesity. JNFS. 2021; 6 (1) :1-2
URL: http://jnfs.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-323-en.html
Department of Human Ecology, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
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Breakfast and Obesity
 
Ameneh Marzban; MSc *1 & Farahnaz Khabiri; MSc 2
 
1 Department of Human Ecology, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
2 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
 
ARTICLE INFO    
EDITORIAL ARTICLE Corresponding author:
amenemarzban@yahoo.com
Department of Human Ecology, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. 
Postal code: 8915173149
Tel: +98 9172458896
Keywords: Breakfast; Weight gain; Obesity.
Article history:
Received: 4 Jun  2020
Revised: 30 Jun  2020
Accepted: 30 Jun 2020
 








Breakfast is a main effective component in a safe dietary lifestyle. Obesity is a social and clinical problem of the present century that is highly prevalent among different societies. The worldwide obesity rate has more than doubled since 1980. Many studies showed that the diet of obese people is insufficient (MM et al., 2020, Otaki et al., 2017). It is also observed that many obese and overweight people skip breakfast or do not pay enough attention to eating a complete meal in the breakfast.  Based on the literature, obese people eat less breakfast, but those who eat breakfast almost every day usually receive enough micronutrients and provide a smaller percentage of their daily energy from fats (Dhurandhar, 2016). There is a scarcity of information regarding the relationship between breakfast consumption and obesity in Iran.
After eating a complete breakfast our body feels full and does not need to make up for the lost calories by eating junk food and unrealistic cravings. This, in turn, helps to promote proper eating habits and helps you to maintain a healthy weight (Chatelan et al., 2018, Megson et al., 2017). People who eat breakfast every day have a more nutritious diet since  eating a balanced and nutritious breakfast balances the eating habits for the rest of the day and prevents excessive hunger and cravings due to severe hypotension (Smith et al., 2018).
People who refuse to eat breakfast have unhealthy choices in their meals, eat more, and increase their calorie intake at the next meal (Milanes et al., 2016). In this regard, skipping breakfast will affect the body’s biological clock. A strong association exists between your body's normal rhythm and weight gain. So, limiting what you eat at a given time can help your body; in other words, delaying breakfast can ruin your body timing. Secretion of the hunger hormone (ghrelin) prepares the stomach. If people do not eat during this time, the body will produce more hunger hormones and they will feel very hungry and eat  high-calorie foods (Dubois et al., 2006, Megson et al., 2017).
People who eat breakfast burn more fat than others. Furthermore, higher calories consumed at the breakfast decrease to the chance of eating during the day. Breakfast can also affect the amount of lunch and dinner (Karatzi et al., 2017, Lopez-Minguez et al., 2019, Milanes et al., 2016).
So, regular consumption of breakfast can be effective in reducing the total calories received by obese people and help them to control their weight.
Authors’ contributions
Marzban A conceived the original idea and designed the project. Khabiri F collected the data and wrote the draft of manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of manuscript.
 
References
Chatelan A, et al. 2018. Association between breakfast composition and abdominal obesity in the Swiss adult population eating breakfast regularly. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 15 (1): 115.
Dhurandhar EJ 2016. True, true, unrelated? A review of recent evidence for a causal influence of breakfast on obesity. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity. 23 (5): 384-388.
Dubois L, Girard M & Kent MP 2006. Breakfast eating and overweight in a pre-school population: is there a link? Public Health Nutrition. 9 (4): 436-442.
Karatzi K, et al. 2017. Late-night overeating is associated with smaller breakfast, breakfast skipping, and obesity in children: The Healthy Growth Study. Nutrition. 33: 141-144.
Lopez-Minguez J, Gómez-Abellán P & Garaulet M 2019. Timing of Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner. Effects on Obesity and Metabolic Risk. Nutrients. 11 (11): 2624.
Megson M, Wing R & Leahey TM 2017. Effects of breakfast eating and eating frequency on body mass index and weight loss outcomes in adults enrolled in an obesity treatment program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 40 (4): 595-601.
Milanes JE, Allison DB, Brown AW & Brown MMB 2016. Effect of breakfast eating versus breakfast skipping on obesity related anthropometry: A systematic review. FASEB Journal. 30 (1_supplement): lb394-lb394.
MM BB, Milanes J, Allison D & Brown A 2020. Eating versus skipping breakfast has no discernible effect on obesity- related anthropometric outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. F1000Research. 9 (140): 140.
Otaki N, et al. 2017. Relationship between breakfast skipping and obesity among elderly: Cross-sectional analysis of the Heijo-Kyo study. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. 21 (5): 501-504.
Smith KL, et al. 2018. Frequency of Breakfast Consumption, Obesity and Weight Gain.FASEB Journal. 32 (1_supplement): 604.602-604.602.
 

 
Type of article: letter to the editor | Subject: public specific
Received: 2020/06/4 | Accepted: 2020/06/30 | Published: 2017/11/15 | ePublished: 2017/11/15

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