Volume 4, Issue 4 (Nov 2019)                   JNFS 2019, 4(4): 293-305 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Wenli S, Shahrajabian M H, Qi C. Therapeutic Roles of Goji Berry and Ginseng in Traditional Chinese . JNFS. 2019; 4 (4) :293-305
URL: http://jnfs.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-245-en.html
Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China **Nitrogen Fixation Laboratory, Qi Institute, Building C4, No.555 Chuangye, Jiaxing 314000, Zhejiang, China
Abstract:   (1252 Views)
Background: Goji berries (Lycium barbarum), widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, can be applied as a dietary supplement. They are classified as nutraceutical food due to their long and safe traditional use. Ginseng has been increasingly used in the last decades and has become well known for its significant role in preventing and treating many diseases. Methods: The keywords of Goji berry, Ginseng, Traditional Chinese medicine were searched in Google Scholar, Scopus, Research Gate, and PubMed in both English and Chinese languages. Results: Goji berry significantly inhibited the generation and spread of cancer cells, improved eyesight, and increased reserves of muscle glycogen and liver glycogen, which may increase human energy and has anti-fatigue effect. Usage of Goji berries improved brain function and enhanced learning and memory. It had positive effects on anti-cancer, anti-oxidant activities, retinal function preservation, anti-diabetes, immune function, and anti-fatigue. Pharmacological activities of ginseng extracts affected the central nervous system, antipsychotic action, tranquilizing effects, protection from stress ulcers, increase of gastrointestinal motility, anti-fatigue action, endocrinological effects, enhancement of sexual behavior, acceleration of metabolism, or synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, RNA, and proteins. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, ginseng helps to maintain a healthy immune system. Conclusions: In this review article we found that Goji berries and Ginseng were sources of compounds with valuable nutritional and bioactive properties. Therefore, they could be incorporated into foods with functional properties. More clinical studies are necessary to uncover the numerous substances and their effects in goji berries and ginseng that contribute to public health.
Full-Text [PDF 583 kb]   (708 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (349 Views)  
Type of article: review article | Subject: public specific
Received: 2019/02/20 | Accepted: 2019/06/27 | Published: 2019/11/1 | ePublished: 2019/11/1

1. Abdennacer B, Karim M, Nesrine R, Mouna D & Mohamed B 2015. Determination of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of methanol extracts obtained from the fruit and leaves of Tunisian Lycium intricatum Boiss. Food chemistry. 174: 577-584.
2. Amagase H 2014. Antioxidants in Goji Berry juice (Lycium barbarum) and effects of processing steps. In Processing and impact on antioxidants in beverages, pp. 155-163. Elsevier.
3. Amagase H & Farnsworth NR 2011. A review of botanical characteristics, phytochemistry, clinical relevance in efficacy and safety of Lycium barbarum fruit (Goji). Food research international. 44 (7): 1702-1717.
4. Balusamy SR, Rahimi S & Yang D-C 2019. Characterization of squalene-induced PgCYP736B involved in salt tolerance by modulating key genes of abscisic acid biosynthesis. International journal of biological macromolecules. 121: 796-805.
5. Beccaria C, et al. 2018. Panax ginseng extract reduces Staphylococcus aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells but does not affect macrophages phagocytic activity. Microbial pathogenesis. 122: 63-72.
6. Blasi F, Montesano D, Simonetti M & Cossignani L 2017. A simple and rapid extraction method to evaluate the fatty acid composition and nutritional value of goji berry lipid. Food analytical methods. 10 (4): 970-979.
7. Bucheli P, et al. 2011. Goji berry effects on macular characteristics and plasma antioxidant levels. Optometry and vision Science. 88 (2): 257-262.
8. Chan E, et al. 2010. Evaluation of anti-oxidant capacity of root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, in comparison with roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb and Panax ginseng CA Meyer. The American journal of Chinese medicine. 38 (04): 815-827.
9. Chen J, Liu X, Zhu L & Wang Y 2013. Nuclear genome size estimation and karyotype analysis of Lycium species (Solanaceae). Scientia horticulturae. 151: 46-50.
10. Chen JK, Chen TT & Crampton L 2004. Chinese medical herbology and pharmacology. Art of Medicine Press City of Industry, CA.
11. Cheung K, Buckley E & Watanabe K 2017. Traditional Chinese Medicine Market in Hong Kong. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine 4(1): 555-630.
12. Cho G, Burckhardt D & Lee S 2016. First record from Korea of the jumping plant-louse Bactericera gobica (Loginova)(Hemiptera: Triozidae), a pest on Lycium chinense Mill., with comments on psyllids associated with Lycium (Solanaceae). Journal of Asia-Pacific entomology. 19 (4): 995-1000.
13. Cieślik E & Gębusia A 2012. Charakterystyka właściwości prozdrowotnych owoców roślin egzotycznych. Post. Fitoter. 2: 93-100.
14. Dermesonlouoglou E, Chalkia A & Taoukis P 2018. Application of osmotic dehydration to improve the quality of dried goji berry. Journal of food engineering. 232: 36-43.
15. Donno D, Beccaro GL, Mellano MG, Cerutti A & Bounous G 2015. Goji berry fruit (Lycium spp.): antioxidant compound fingerprint and bioactivity evaluation. Journal of functional foods. 18: 1070-1085.
16. Endes Z, Uslu N, Özcan MM & Er F 2015. Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid composition and mineral contents of goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit. Journal of agroalimentary processes and technologies. 21 (1): 36-40.
17. Fiorito S, et al. 2019. Novel biologically active principles from spinach, goji and quinoa. Food chemistry. 276: 262-265.
18. Forino M, Tartaglione L, Dell’Aversano C & Ciminiello P 2016. NMR-based identification of the phenolic profile of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries). Isolation and structural determination of a novel N-feruloyl tyramine dimer as the most abundant antioxidant polyphenol of goji berries. Food chemistry. 194: 1254-1259.
19. Fratianni A, et al. 2018. Effect of a physical pre-treatment and drying on carotenoids of goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.). LWT. 92: 318-323.
20. Grazma-Michalowska A, Sidor A & Kulczynski B 2017. Berries as a potential anti-influenza factor- A review. Journal of functinal foods. 37: 116-137.
21. Guo D-J, Cheng H-L, Chan S-W & Yu P-F 2008. Antioxidative activities and the total phenolic contents of tonic Chinese medicinal herbs. Inflammopharmacology. 16 (5): 201-207.
22. Hempel J, et al. 2017. Ultrastructural deposition forms and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and carotenoid esters from goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.). Food chemistry. 218: 525-533.
23. Huang W, Liao S, Lv H, Khaldun A & Wang Y 2015. Characterization of the growth and fruit quality of tomato grafted on a woody medicinal plant, Lycium chinense. Scientia horticulturae. 197: 447-453.
24. Jeong HC, et al. 2012. The research trend of ginseng processing technology and the status of ginseng industry. Food Science and Industry. 45 (4): 59-67.
25. Jin M, Huang Q, Zhao K & Shang P 2013. Biological activities and potential health benefit effects of polysaccharides isolated from Lycium barbarum L. International journal of biological macromolecules. 54: 16-23.
26. Karakas FP, Coskun H, Saglam K & Bozat B 2016. Lycium barbarum L.(goji berry) fruits improve anxiety, depression-like behaviors, and learning performance: the moderating role of sex. Turkish journal of biology. 40 (4): 762-771.
27. Kim H-G, et al. 2011. Antioxidant effects of Panax ginseng CA Meyer in healthy subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Food and chemical Ttxicology. 49 (9): 2229-2235.
28. Kim H-J, et al. 2018. In vitro assessments of bone microcomputed tomography in an aged male rat model supplemented with Panax ginseng. Saudi journal of biological sciences. 25 (6): 1135-1139.
29. Kim Y-J, et al. 2014. Ginsenoside profiles and related gene expression during foliation in Panax ginseng Meyer. Journal of ginseng research. 38 (1): 66-72.
30. Kuo Y-H, Ikegami F & Lambein F 2003. Neuroactive and other free amino acids in seed and young plants of Panax ginseng. Phytochemistry. 62 (7): 1087-1091.
31. Lakshmi T, Roy A & Geetha R 2011. Panax ginseng–a universal panacea in the herbal medicine with diverse pharmacological spectrum–a review. Asian journal of pharmaceutical and clinical research. 4 (1): 14-18.
32. Lee S & Rhee D-K 2017. Effects of ginseng on stress-related depression, anxiety, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Journal of ginseng research. 41 (4): 589-594.
33. Leontopoulos S, Skenderidis P, Kalorizou H & Petrotos K 2017. Bioactivity Potential of polyphenolic compounds in human health and their effectiveness against various food borne and plant pathogens. A Review. International journal of food and biosystems engineering,. 7: 1-19.
34. Li M-R, et al. 2017. Genome-wide variation patterns uncover the origin and selection in cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer). Genome biology and evolution. 9 (9): 2159-2169.
35. Liu C, Tseng A & Yang S 2004. Chinese herbal medicine: modern applications of traditional formulas. CRC Press.
36. Liu S-Y, Chen L, Li X-C, Hu Q-K & He L-J 2018. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide protects diabetic peripheral neuropathy by enhancing autophagy via mTOR/p70S6K inhibition in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of chemical neuroanatomy. 89: 37-42.
37. Llorent-Martínez E, Fernández-de Córdova M, Ortega-Barrales P & Ruiz-Medina A 2013. Characterization and comparison of the chemical composition of exotic superfoods. Microchemical Journal. 110: 444-451.
38. Luo Q, Cai Y, Yan J, Sun M & Corke H 2004. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects and antioxidant activity of fruit extracts from Lycium barbarum. Life sciences. 76 (2): 137-149.
39. Masci A, et al. 2018. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides: Extraction, purification, structural characterisation and evidence about hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects. A review. Food chemistry. 254: 377-389.
40. Mikulic‐Petkovsek M, Schmitzer V, Slatnar A, Stampar F & Veberic R 2012. Composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolics in 25 wild or cultivated berry species. Journal of food science. 77 (10): C1064-C1070.
41. Miller JS, Levin RA & Feliciano NM 2008. A tale of two continents: Baker's rule and the maintenance of self‐incompatibility in Lycium (Solanaceae). Evolution: International journal of oganic evolution. 62 (5): 1052-1065.
42. Mocan A, et al. 2018. UHPLC-QTOF-MS analysis of bioactive constituents from two Romanian Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) berries cultivars and their antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, and real-time cytotoxicological evaluation. Food and chemical toxicology. 115: 414-424.
43. Montesano D, et al. 2016. A simple HPLC-ELSD method for sugar analysis in goji berry. Journal of chemistry. 2016.
44. Nile SH & Park SW 2014. Edible berries: Bioactive components and their effect on human health. Nutrition. 30 (2): 134-144.
45. Pace R, Martinelli EM, Sardone N & Combarieu ED 2015. Metabolomic evaluation of ginsenosides distribution in Panax genus (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius) using multivariate statistical analysis. Fitoterapia. 101: 80-91.
46. Patel S & Rauf A 2017. Adaptogenic herb ginseng (Panax) as medical food: Status quo and future prospects. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy. 85: 120-127.
47. Patsilinakos A, Ragno R, Carradori S, Petralito S & Cesa S 2018. Carotenoid content of Goji berries: CIELAB, HPLC-DAD analyses and quantitative correlation. Food chemistry. 268: 49-56.
48. Potterat O 2010. Goji (Lycium barbarum and L. chinense): phytochemistry, pharmacology and safety in the perspective of traditional uses and recent popularity. Planta medica. 76 (01): 7-19.
49. Protti M, et al. 2017. Analytical profiling of selected antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity of goji (Lycium spp.) berries. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 143: 252-260.
50. Redgwell RJ, et al. 2011. Cell wall polysaccharides of Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum): Part 2. Characterisation of arabinogalactan-proteins. Carbohydrate polymers. 84 (3): 1075-1083.
51. Rosa A, et al. 2017. Chemical composition of Lycium europaeum fruit oil obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and cell absorption. Food chemistry. 230: 82-90.
52. Shahrajabian M, Wenli S & Qi C 2018. A review of Goji berry (Lycium barbarum) in traditional Chinese medicine as a promising organic superfood and superfruit in modern industry. Journal of mdicinal plants research. 6 (12): 437-445.
53. Shi W, Wang Y, Li J, Zhang H & Ding L 2007. Investigation of ginsenosides in different parts and ages of Panax ginseng. Food chemistry. 102 (3): 664-668.
54. Shin B-K, Kwon SW & Park JH 2015. Chemical diversity of ginseng saponins from Panax ginseng. Journal of ginseng research. 39 (4): 287-298.
55. Silva C, et al. 2017. Goji Berry (Lycium Barbarum) in the treatment of diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Food research. 1 (6): 221-224.
56. Skenderidis P, et al. 2018. Assessment of the antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of extracts from goji berry of Greek cultivation. Toxicology reports. 5: 251-257.
57. Soares deSousa L, et al. 2016. Evaluate the action of the aqueous extract of the medicinal plant Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum) on biochemical and hematological parameters in Wistar rats. IOSR journal of pharmacy and biological sciences. 11 (5): 2312-7676.
58. Song M, Salam NK, Roufogalis BD & Huang TH-W 2011. Lycium barbarum (Goji Berry) extracts and its taurine component inhibit PPAR-γ-dependent gene transcription in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: possible implications for diabetic retinopathy treatment. Biochemical pharmacology. 82 (9): 1209-1218.
59. Sun L, et al. 2019. Structural characterization of rhamnogalacturonan domains from Panax ginseng CA Meyer. Carbohydrate polymers. 203: 119-127.
60. Uluisik D & Keskin E 2016. Hepatoprotective effects of ginseng in rats fed cholesterol rich diet. Acta scientiae veterinariae. 44: 1-5.
61. Wan J-Y, et al. 2015. Integrated evaluation of malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids and polysaccharides in fresh and processed ginseng. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 107: 89-97.
62. Williamson EM, Lorenc A, Booker A & Robinson N 2013. The rise of traditional Chinese medicine and its materia medica: a comparison of the frequency and safety of materials and species used in Europe and China. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 149 (2): 453-462.
63. Wojcieszek J, Kwiatkowski P & Ruzik L 2017. Speciation analysis and bioaccessibility evaluation of trace elements in goji berries (Lycium Barbarum, L.). Journal of chromatography A. 1492: 70-78.
64. Wojdyło A, Nowicka P & Bąbelewski P 2018. Phenolic and carotenoid profile of new goji cultivars and their anti-hyperglycemic, anti-aging and antioxidant properties. Journal of functional foods. 48: 632-642.
65. Xie J-H, Tang W, Jin M-L, Li J-E & Xie M-Y 2016. Recent advances in bioactive polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum L., Zizyphus jujuba Mill, Plantago spp., and Morus spp.: Structures and functionalities. Food hydrocolloids. 60: 148-160.
66. Yun TK 2001. Brief introduction of Panax ginseng CA Meyer. Journal of Korean medical science. 16 (Suppl): S3.
67. Zhang J, Tian L & Xie B 2015. Bleeding due to a probable interaction between warfarin and Gouqizi (Lycium Barbarum L.). Toxicology reports. 2: 1209-1212.
68. Zhu Y, et al. 2016. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides attenuates N-methy-N-nitrosourea-induced photoreceptor cell apoptosis in rats through regulation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase expression. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 191: 125-134.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2015 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Nutrition and Food Security

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb