Volume 5, Issue 2 (May 2020)                   JNFS 2020, 5(2): 97-108 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
Abstract:   (1961 Views)
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children. Children with ADHD usually have low blood pressure and weight disorders. Therefore, the present randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) on weight and blood pressure of children with ADHD. Methods: In this research, 86 children aged 6 to 12 years with diagnosed ADHD according to Conner’s Teacher's Questionnaire and DSM-4 criteria were investigated. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive a DASH diet and a control diet for 12 weeks. Participants' anthropometric indices, blood pressure, physical activity, and dietary compliance were evaluated each month. Adherence to the diet was studied using a three-day food report completed by the participants' parents. Results: A total of 80 children completed the study (40 in each group). No significant difference was observed in any of the weight composition indices measured before and after the intervention between the study groups (P > 0.05). No significant difference was reported in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the study groups at the baseline. However, diastolic blood pressure increased in the DASH group significantly compared to the control group (P = 0.02). Conclusion: The DASH diet might increase the diastolic blood pressure in children with ADHD. Further studies with a longer follow-up period are necessary to confirm these results.
Full-Text [PDF 800 kb]   (363 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (229 Views)  
Type of article: orginal article | Subject: public specific
Received: 2019/08/21 | Accepted: 2019/12/14 | Published: 2020/05/1 | ePublished: 2020/05/1

1. Abargouei AS, Janghorbani M, Salehi-Marzijarani M & Esmaillzadeh A 2012. Effect of dairy consumption on weight and body composition in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. International journal of obesity. 36 (12): 1485.
2. Akhavan Karbasi S, Golestan M, Fallah R & Sadr Bafghi M 2008. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in 6 year olds of Yazd city. Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of meical sciences. 15 (4): 29-34 (Persian).
3. Asemi Z, Tabassi Z, Samimi M, Fahiminejad T & Esmaillzadeh A 2013. Favourable effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet on glucose tolerance and lipid profiles in gestational diabetes: a randomised clinical trial. British journal of ntrition. 109 (11): 2024-2030.
4. Attention-deficit So 2011. ADHD: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 128 (5): 1007-1022.
5. Azadbakht L & Esmaillzadeh A 2012. Dietary patterns and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among Iranian children. Nutrition. 28 (3): 242-249.
6. Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P, Hosseini F & Azizi F 2005. Diet quality status of most Tehranian adults needs improvement. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 14 (2): 163-168.
7. Berz JP, Singer MR, Guo X, Daniels SR & Moore LL 2011. Use of a DASH food group score to predict excess weight gain in adolescent girls in the National Growth and Health Study. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. 165 (6): 540-546.
8. Biederman J 2005. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a selective overview. Biological psychiatry. 57 (11): 1215-1220.
9. Buijsse B, et al. 2009. Fruit and vegetable intakes and subsequent changes in body weight in European populations: results from the project on Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes)–. American journal of clinical nutrition. 90 (1): 202-209.
10. Byrd HM, Curtin C & Anderson SE 2013. Attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity in US males and females, age 8–15 years: N ational H ealth and N utrition E xamination S urvey 2001–2004. Pediatric obesity. 8 (6): 445-453.
11. Chew KY & Brownlee IA 2018. The impact of supplementation with dietary fibers on weight loss: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Bioactive carbohydrates and dietary fibre. 14: 9-19.
12. Clifton PM, Condo D & Keogh JB 2014. Long term weight maintenance after advice to consume low carbohydrate, higher protein diets–a systematic review and meta analysis. Nutrition, metabolism and cardiovascular diseases. 24 (3): 224-235.
13. Conlin PR, et al. 2000. The effect of dietary patterns on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients: results from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial. American journal of hypertension. 13 (9): 949-955.
14. Cortese S, et al. 2015. Association between ADHD and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American journal of psychiatry. 173 (1): 34-43.
15. Couch SC, et al. 2008. The efficacy of a clinic-based behavioral nutrition intervention emphasizing a DASH-type diet for adolescents with elevated blood pressure. Journal of pediatrics. 152 (4): 494-501.
16. Elia J, Ambrosini P & Berrettini W 2008. ADHD characteristics: I. Concurrent co-morbidity patterns in children & adolescents. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health. 2 (1): 15.
17. Fliers EA, et al. 2013. ADHD is a risk factor for overweight and obesity in children. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP. 34 (8): 566-574.
18. Gidding SS, et al. 2006. Dietary recommendations for children and adolescents: a guide for practitioners. Pediatrics. 117 (2): 544-559.
19. Hajna S, et al. 2012. Association between body composition and conformity to the recommendations of Canada's Food Guide and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet in peri-adolescence. Public health nutrition. 15 (10): 1890-1896.
20. Heilskov Rytter MJ, et al. 2015. Diet in the treatment of ADHD in children—A systematic review of the literature. Nordic journal of psychiatry. 69 (1): 1-18.
21. Houston MC & Harper KJ 2008. Potassium, magnesium, and calcium: their role in both the cause and treatment of hypertension. Journal of clinical hypertension. 10 (7): 3-11.
22. Keshavarz SA, et al. 2018. Omega-3 supplementation effects on body weight and depression among dieter women with co-morbidity of depression and obesity compared with the placebo: A randomized clinical trial. Clinical nutrition ESPEN. 25: 37-43.
23. Klein RG, et al. 2012. Clinical and functional outcome of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 33 years later. Archives of general psychiatry. 69 (12): 1295-1303.
24. Mannuzza S, Klein RG, Bessler A, Malloy P & LaPadula M 1993. Adult outcome of hyperactive boys: Educational achievement, occupational rank, and psychiatric status. Archives of general psychiatry. 50 (7): 565-576.
25. Meyer T, Becker A, Sundermann J, Rothenberger A & Herrmann-Lingen C 2017. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is associated with reduced blood pressure and serum vitamin D levels: results from the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). European child & adolescent psychiatry. 26 (2): 165-175.
26. Newby PK, et al. 2003. Dietary patterns and changes in body mass index and waist circumference in adults. American journal of clinical nutrition. 77 (6): 1417-1425.
27. Pediatrics AAo 2004. National high blood pressure education program working group on high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 114 (Supplement 2): iv-iv.
28. Polanczyk G, De Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J & Rohde LA 2007. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. American journal of psychiatry. 164 (6): 942-948.
29. Sacks FM, et al. 2001. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. New England journal of medicine. 344 (1): 3-10.
30. Saneei P, Salehi-Abargouei A, Esmaillzadeh A & Azadbakht L 2014. Influence of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials. Nutrition, metabolism and cardiovascular diseases. 24 (12): 1253-1261.
31. Shirani F, Salehi-Abargouei A & Azadbakht L 2013. Effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on some risk for developing type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis on controlled clinical trials. Nutrition. 29 (7-8): 939-947.
32. Soltani S, Shirani F, Chitsazi MJ & Salehi‐Abargouei A 2016. The effect of dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet on weight and body composition in adults: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Obesity reviews. 17 (5): 442-454.
33. Wilens TE, et al. 2005. Blood pressure changes associated with medication treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of clinical psychiatry. 66 (2): 253-259.