Volume 4, Issue 3 (Aug 2019)                   JNFS 2019, 4(3): 170-175 | Back to browse issues page


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Safavizadeh V, Alizadeh-Sani M, Rostami M, Aman Mohammadi M, Heydari A. The Most Important Criteria for Selection of Foods in Yazd . JNFS. 2019; 4 (3) :170-175
URL: http://jnfs.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-276-en.html
5Zoonotic Diseases Research Center, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
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The Most Important Criteria for Selection of Foods in Yazd
 
Vahid Safavizadeh; MSc1, Mahmood Alizadeh-Sani; MSc2, Mohammadreza Rostami; MSc3,
Masoud Aman Mohammadi; MSc*4 & Ali Heydari; MSc5

 
1 Department of Pharmaceutical and Food Control, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
2 Department of Food Safety and Hygiene, Faculty of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3Student Research Committee, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Science, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
4Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
5Zoonotic Diseases Research Center, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
 
ARTICLE INFO   ABSTRACT
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Background: Selection of the right foods is the first step to have a healthy society. Food selection criteria depend on the food characteristics and food culture in an area. One of the most important factors in selection of the food items is the individuals' social differences and gender issues. Methods: In this paper, 500 people were selected from Yazd city.  Later, this population was categorized into four categories of 125 and the types of food choices were investigated in each category. The data were analyzed to evaluate the groups using SPSS 16. Results: The results showed that the most important factor in selecting a food type was brand, whereas, the least important one was awards and lotteries. The price is the most important criterion for shopping in downtown areas and its rate was higher in men. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the brand, price, and physical and emotional characteristics of food items had greater impact on buyers.
 
Keywords: Consumer; Food choice questionnaire; Food safety; Food consumption
Article history:
Received: 25 Jun 2018
Revised: 3 Sep 2018
Accepted: 20 NOV 2018
 
*Corresponding author:
Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
 
Postal code: 1981619573
Tel: +98- 9374875703
 
Introduction
The global concern is increasing about the right or wrong choices of food items by consumers since these choices effect the health of individuals (Deshpande et al., 2009, Pearcey and Zhan, 2018). Food buyers are increasingly faced with new food products and better packaging. Moreover, producers sometimes try to attract new buyers by awards and lotteries. Although many criteria affect selection of food products, in this research we tried to investigate several general criteria for choosing a food item from other foods of the same kind.
A great deal of research was conducted on the effect of color and odor on the increase of sales and consumption (Porcherot et al., 2013, Yin et al., 2017). This idea was categorized under the sub-title of physical and sensory characteristics and included all perceptual and physiological properties of goods. Label information includes the expiration date, nutritional information, product safety, and other useful information on the food product (Przyrembel, 2004). The type of brand, the reputation of a producer, and the buyer's trust in that product are related to a particular manufacturer (Cho, 2019, Dong and Gleim, 2018). The price suitable for the customer can also be one of the most important criteria (Cabral et al., 2017, Dong and Gleim, 2018). In recent years, producers have started to allocate valuable prizes to their products in Iran to increase their sales. This may greatly affect the selection of a food from among other foods of the same type (Loucks et al., 2017, Vandeweghe et al., 2018).
In a study conducted over Chinese and American students, the results showed that price was important for most Americans, while the Chinese emphasized the sensory appeal of a food product (Pearcey and Zhan, 2018). In this study, we aimed to investigate the differences in food selection criteria among food buyers in upstate and downtown neighborhoods of the city. In addition, we tried to conduct a good research by comparing the data according to the participant' gender and the grocery store location.
Materials and Methods
Study design, participants and measurements: In this descriptive comparative study, after consulting with a statistician and determining the error range of α = 0.05, the sample size was determined as 500. The participants were classified into four categories of 125 people from the affluent and downtown areas. The first group consisted of 125 male buyers in the retail store of upstate, the second group was 125 women shoppers in the same store, the third group included 125 male shoppers in a downtown store, and the last category was 125 females from the same downtown store. These buyers were aged over 18 and under the age of 65 years. For both affluent and downtown groups, three stores were selected, which are roughly equally well-suited to the question of Table 1. This study was carried out from 7 to 9 AM in six consecutive days. Considering the income level of people in the questionnaire, 5 million tomans per month was considered as the selection criterion; individuals who earned 5 milions or higher were considered wealthy. In this study, we used five general criteria to classify the food selection reasons: brand type, nutrition label information, physical characteristics, price, and prizes. An example of the questionnaire item is "when you are faced with fish cans of different types, what is your most important criterion for choosing one of them?"
Ethical considerations: All the ethical criteria were observed in this questionnaire: the names of people and their professions were not questioned. To identify the wealthy people, only their income range was included in the questionnaire. In other words, people were not asked about their total income.
Data analysis: Data were analyzed using descriptive (Mean, Standard deviation. Minimum, and Maximum), and analytical statistics (chi-square test). To compare the groups, the independent sample t-test or Kruskal-wallis test was conducted. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 16.
Results
The results of this research are summarized in Tables 2 to 6. A large part of the society considered brands initially to buy products. According to Table 2, only a part of the consumers paid attention to the information label, which is probably because women paid more attention to the consumption of low-calorie foods. The results of this study showed a significant difference among the male participants living in the downtown and affluent areas in choosing a specific foodstuff (P ​​< 0.05) (Table 3). Similarly, a significant difference was observed between the two groups of women living in downtown and affluent areas (Table 4).
In another comparison between males and females living in downtown and affluent areas, results showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) (Table 5 and 6). The findings showed that the most significant effect and type of selection in affluent areas depended on brand and type of packaging, but the price was not very important in these areas (Table 5). On the other hand, female residents of the affluent areas selected their products mainly based on the brand and the physical characteristics of products.
In contrast, in downtown areas, no significant difference was observed between men and women regarding the section of the food type and characteristics under study (P > 0.05). In this group, the most important and the only significant criterion was price (P < 0.05) (Table 6). However, the criteria of awards and type of brand were not very noticeable.  Focus on brand was dominant in a large part of society, especially among female consumers of affluent areas. Female buyers considered the label of information more than the males in the same area.

Discussion
Similar studies were conducted in many parts of the world. A study conducted in nine European countries showed that in countries such as Spain, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, and the Netherlands, the most important criterion for food selection was price. While sensory appeal was important in England, Germany, and Norway. In Poland nutritional compounds were the most important (Markovina et al., 2015). A research indicated that one of the most important criteria in India was sensory appeal (Sushma et al., 2014). In a study conducted in the Philippines, healthfulness  and  price were the priorities of the participants (Januszewska et al., 2011). Steptoe et al. reported that price, healthfulness, and sensory characteristics were the most important criteria (Steptoe et al., 1995). In a study carried out among the American and Chinese students, brand type was ranked as the lowest criteria (Pearcey and Zhan, 2018). These results are agreement with our findings and show that brands, prices, and physical characteristics are among the most important criteria in Iran and throughout the world. However, previous studies reported that brand was less important, but this is an important criterion in Iran.
Conclusion
Considering the development of the food industry and the diversity of products, choosing a food product is a source of confusion for a wide variety of foods in the market. Various properties can affect choices. In this study, we tried to examine and rate several criteria and their impacts on the population under study. It was observed that the type of brand was the most important criterion studied in this research. From this study, we found that the price did not affect the selection of a food in rich areas of Yazd, but in the downtown area, this criterion was significantly important. In addition, the information label of products attracted the participants' attention to a small degree, which could be considered as a risky behavior with regard to the food safety. By increasing the consumers' awareness about the food label information (expiration date, calories in the food, ingredients in that food, etc.), we can promote the health level of the community and prevent from the spread of many diseases.
Acknowledgments
We appreciate the of people participated in this study.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflict of interests.
Authors' contributions
Safavizade V and Aman Mohammadi M contributed in designing the study. Alizade-sani M, Rostami M contributed, and Heydari A contributed in data collection and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors studied and approved the final version of the manuscript.
 
References
Cabral D, de Almeida MDV & Cunha LM 2017. Food Choice Questionnaire in an African country–Application and validation in Cape Verde. Food Quality and Preference. 62: 90-95.
Cho H 2019. Brand name fluency and perceptions of water purity and taste. Food Quality and Preference. 71: 21-24.
Deshpande S, Basil MD & Basil DZ 2009. Factors influencing healthy eating habits among college students: An application of the health belief model. Health Marketing Quarterly. 26 (2): 145-164.
Dong R & Gleim MR 2018. High or low: The impact of brand logo location on consumers product perceptions. Food Quality and Preference. 69: 28-35.
Januszewska R, Pieniak Z & Verbeke W 2011. Food choice questionnaire revisited in four countries. Does it still measure the same? Appetite. 57 (1): 94-98.
Loucks JN, Eggett DL, Dunn ML, Steele FM & Jefferies LK 2017. Effect of monetary reward and food type on accuracy and assessment time of untrained sensory panelists in triangle tests. Food Quality and Preference. 56: 119-125.
Markovina J, et al. 2015. Food4Me study: Validity and reliability of Food Choice Questionnaire in 9 European countries. Food Quality and Preference. 45: 26-32.
Pearcey SM & Zhan GQ 2018. A comparative study of American and Chinese college students’ motives for food choice. Appetite. 123: 325-333.
Porcherot C, Delplanque S, Gaudreau N & Cayeux I 2013. Seeing, smelling, feeling! Is there an influence of color on subjective affective responses to perfumed fabric softeners? Food Quality and Preference. 27 (2): 161-169.
Przyrembel H 2004. Food labelling legislation in the EU and consumers information. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 15 (7-8): 360-365.
Steptoe A, Pollard TM & Wardle J 1995. Development of a measure of the motives underlying the selection of food: the food choice questionnaire. Appetite. 25 (3): 267-284.
Sushma R, et al. 2014. Food choice motives among the students of a dental institution in Mysore city, India. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. 4 (5): 802-805.
Vandeweghe L, et al. 2018. Strategies to increase preschoolers' vegetable liking and consumption: The role of reward sensitivity. Food Quality and Preference. 66: 153-159.
Yin W, Hewson L, Linforth R, Taylor M & Fisk ID 2017. Effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite sensation and subsequent food intake. Appetite. 114: 265-274.

 
Type of article: orginal article | Subject: public specific
Received: 2018/06/25 | Accepted: 2018/11/20 | Published: 2019/08/1 | ePublished: 2019/08/1

References
1. Cabral D, de Almeida MDV & Cunha LM 2017. Food Choice Questionnaire in an African country–Application and validation in Cape Verde. Food Quality and Preference. 62: 90-95.
2. Cho H 2019. Brand name fluency and perceptions of water purity and taste. Food Quality and Preference. 71: 21-24.
3. Deshpande S, Basil MD & Basil DZ 2009. Factors influencing healthy eating habits among college students: An application of the health belief model. Health Marketing Quarterly. 26 (2): 145-164.
4. Dong R & Gleim MR 2018. High or low: The impact of brand logo location on consumers product perceptions. Food Quality and Preference. 69: 28-35.
5. Januszewska R, Pieniak Z & Verbeke W 2011. Food choice questionnaire revisited in four countries. Does it still measure the same? Appetite. 57 (1): 94-98.
6. Loucks JN, Eggett DL, Dunn ML, Steele FM & Jefferies LK 2017. Effect of monetary reward and food type on accuracy and assessment time of untrained sensory panelists in triangle tests. Food Quality and Preference. 56: 119-125.
7. Markovina J, et al. 2015. Food4Me study: Validity and reliability of Food Choice Questionnaire in 9 European countries. Food Quality and Preference. 45: 26-32.
8. Pearcey SM & Zhan GQ 2018. A comparative study of American and Chinese college students’ motives for food choice. Appetite. 123: 325-333.
9. Porcherot C, Delplanque S, Gaudreau N & Cayeux I 2013. Seeing, smelling, feeling! Is there an influence of color on subjective affective responses to perfumed fabric softeners? Food Quality and Preference. 27 (2): 161-169.
10. Przyrembel H 2004. Food labelling legislation in the EU and consumers information. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 15 (7-8): 360-365.
11. Steptoe A, Pollard TM & Wardle J 1995. Development of a measure of the motives underlying the selection of food: the food choice questionnaire. Appetite. 25 (3): 267-284.
12. Sushma R, et al. 2014. Food choice motives among the students of a dental institution in Mysore city, India. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. 4 (5): 802-805.
13. Vandeweghe L, et al. 2018. Strategies to increase preschoolers' vegetable liking and consumption: The role of reward sensitivity. Food Quality and Preference. 66: 153-159.
14. Yin W, Hewson L, Linforth R, Taylor M & Fisk ID 2017. Effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite sensation and subsequent food intake. Appetite. 114: 265-274.

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