Volume 4, Issue 4 (Nov 2019)                   JNFS 2019, 4(4): 256-262 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Marzban A, Nadjarzadeh A, Karimi-Nazari E, Rahmanian V, Farrokhian A, Barzegaran M. Correlation between Religiosity and Nutritional Behavior in Students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd. JNFS. 2019; 4 (4) :256-262
URL: http://jnfs.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-188-en.html
shahid sadoughi university of medical sciences, Yazd, Iran
Full-Text [PDF 514 kb]   (371 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (490 Views)
Full-Text:   (67 Views)
Correlation between Religiosity and Nutritional Behavior in Students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd
 
Ameneh Marzban; MSc1, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh; PhD2,3, Elham Karimi-Nazari; MSc2, Vahid  Rahmanian; PhD4, Asma  Farrokhian; PhD5  & Mehran Barzegaran; BSc*6
 
1 Student Research Committee, School of Public of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
2 Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
3 Department of Nutrition, School of Public of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
4 Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran
5 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
6 Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran.
 
ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Background: Today, bad and harmful nutritional behavior is one of the most important and common nutritional problems of young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between religiosity and nutritional behavior in students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd City, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 310 students in the academic year 2017-2018 by stratified sampling method. Data collection tools were demographic questionnaire, Serajzadeh religiosity measures, and nutritional behavior questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed a positive and significant correlation between religious attitude and nutritional behavior of students (P = 0.01, R = 0.78). Furthermore, religious attitude had a significant relationship with educational level and school of study. Moreover, a significant relationship was found between gender and nutritional behavior of students. Conclusion: Regarding the correlation between religiosity and nutritional behavior, the authorities are recommended to hold Islamic nutrition workshops in order to improve nutritional behavior of the students.
Keywords: Religiosity; Nutritional Behavior; Students; Yazd
Article history:
Received: 17 Jul 2018
Revised: 12 Sep 2018
Accepted: 27 Nov 2018
*Corresponding author:
barzegaran2017@yahoo.com
Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran.
 
Postal code: 8915173160
Tel: +98 9172458896
 
Introduction
Religion, as an effective factor on all societies and at all times, has helped the human beings to meet their needs. Religion is the main pillar of the culture for every nation and guides the society (Hassanvand Amouzadeh, 2016). Religious orders and ceremonies are factors that can be used effectively in promoting the quality of life (Paiva et al., 2014). Religious attitude considers God as the centerpiece of affairs and regulates the values, morals, customs, and human behaviors with each other and nature (Kashfi et al., 2016).
Food, as one of the inherent or physiological needs, is the most important factor in the survival of people and longevity of life. Today, bad and harmful nutrition is one of the most important and common nutritional problems of young people (Eslami et al., 2015, Iesazadeh et al., 2018). In Iran, personal behaviors such as dressing, eating, walking, etc., are influenced by the West culture and family is not pursued by the experts very seriously (Salehi et al., 2016). A large part of Iran's young population is made up of students (Zamanian et al., 2013). Students as the driving force and positive energy source play a major role in determining the political, social, and cultural development of societies and have an important effect on the health of the community (Hashemi et al., 2018). Students constitute the most dynamic part of each society and their health is largely necessary for the community health. Hence, patterns of students' health behavior should be considered (Freedman and Connors, 2011). A high percentage of the country's population has obesity and overweight, which causes cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and various types of cancers. Obesity and overweight are also among the main reasons for changing the pattern of consumption and undesirable behaviors of food (Khan et al., 2019, Rezaee et al., 2018). Religion prescribes a healthier lifestyle for individuals, which has a positive effect on health (Khodaveisi et al., 2016, Marzban et al., 2017). The Islamic Nutrition Pattern is a collection of foods and beverages as well as eating habits and behaviors emphasized in various Islamic sources. Nutrition is one of the six principles for preserving health in the traditional Iranian medicine. In religious doctrines, principles of eating and drinking are very important. Inappropriate nutrition can be considered as one of the most important factors in many diseases, such as diabetes, high blood lipids, and cardiovascular disease. Traditional medicine considers inappropriate nutrition as a very important factor in the physiopathology of diseases (Iesazadeh et al., 2018, Marzban et al., 2018).
Considering the impact of religion on different aspects of human health, this study investigated the relationship between religion and nutritional behavior. Therefore, this study investigated the correlation between religiosity and nutritional behavior of students in Yazd Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences.
Materials and Methods
Design and participants: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the correlation between religiosity and nutritional behavior among students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd. The statistical population of this study included all students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences. Initially, 30 students were evaluated and the sample size was calculated as 310 using P = 0.5, d = 0.05, and the following formula:n= Samples were selected by stratified sampling method. At first, students were classified based on their college degree (medical, dentistry, pharmacy, paramedical, health, nursing and midwifery, as well as international campus) and the sample size was estimated based on the proportion of each category to the total population.
Finally, a total of 297 questionnaires were filled out and entered the study. The explanations were about how to answer the questions, volunteering procedure of participating in the research, confidentiality of information, and not mentioning the students' names in the questionnaires.
Measurements: Three self-administered questionnaires were administered to collect data; demographic check list, Muslim religiosity measure, and questionnaire of nutritional behavior by Iesazadeh et al. with confirmed validity and reliability coefficient of 0.83 (Iesazadeh et al., 2018). The checklist of demographic information included variables such as age, gender, marital status, educational level, school of study, and place of residence. The Muslim religious measure was adapted to Islam regulation and especially Shia by Serajzade based on Glacier and Stark’s Pattern. This questionnaire has 26 questions and measures four following dimensions of religiosity: religious beliefs (7 questions), empirical or religious emotions (6 questions), religious effects (6 questions), and religious practices (7 questions. ( Questions should be answered on a five-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 to 5. Thus, scores ranged from 26 to 130, scores under 65 showed negative attitudes, and scores over 65 represented good attitudes.
The nutritional behavior questionnaire includes 25 questions scored from 1 to 5 on the Likert scale. Thus, the attainable scores range from 25 to 125; scores lower than 63 show negative behaviors and scores higher than 63 represent positive behavior.
Data analysis: Collected data were analyzed by SPSS16 using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation and frequency), chi-square, and Pearson correlation coefficient.
Results
The mean age of participants was 24.24 ± 4.83 years (age range: 18-35) and 50.16% of them were under 24 years (n = 149). According to findings, 57% of participants were male (n = 169), 72.4% were single (n = 215), 33% were from the public health school (n = 98), 34.34% were undergraduate (n = 148), and 72.10% lived in dormitory (n = 214) (Table 1).
As shown in Table 2, educational level and school of study had a significant statistical relationship with the dependent variable (religious attitude). However, no significant relationship was observed between gender, age, marital status, school of study, and place of residence with attitude score. According to the results, a significant relationship was found between gender and nutritional behavior. However, nutritional behavior had no significant relationship with marital status, place of residence, age, educational level, and school of study. Moreover, 52.39% and 58.21% of students had positive religious attitude and positive nutritional behavior, respectively. A statistically significant relationship was observed between nutritional behavior and religious attitude (P = 0.01, R = 0.78).

Discussion
The present study was conducted to determine the correlation between religiosity and nutritional behavior in students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd. The mean score of religious attitude was 80.52 ± 15.33.
The mean score of religious attitude in Iesazadeh (Iesazadeh et al., 2018), Kazemian (Kazemianmogadam K and Mehrabizadeh M, 2011), Khodayarifard (Khodayarifard M et al., 2010), and Yazdkhasti (Yazdkhasti F et al., 2016) studies were 74.12 ± 7.92, 87.17 ± 96.14, 480.20 ± 6.80, and 67.75 ± 12.13, respectively. According to the results, 52.39% of students had positive religious attitude. Lotfabadi (Lotfabadi and Norozi, 2010) and Rejali (Rejali M and Mostaejeran M, 2012) found that 90.30% and 57% of students had strong religious attitudes, respectively. In Iesazadeh study, 60.64% of students had relatively desirable religious attitudes. The results showed that religious attitude in men was stronger than women, which was consistent with the results of the study by Kazemianmogadam  (Kazemianmogadam K and Mehrabizadeh M, 2011). However, it was not consistent with the results of the studies by Iesazadeh (Iesazadeh et al., 2018) and Khodayarifard (Khodayarifard M et al., 2010). Since girls account for more than half of the country's population and play a critical role in the family as mothers of future generations, it is necessary that university cultural authorities try to increase the level of religious attitude of students, especially female students.  Religious attitude had a significant relationship with the educational level and school of study, which was consistent with the study by Zakavi (Zakavi et al., 2008), Tavan (Tavan B et al., 2011), and Rejali (Rejali M and Mostaejeran M, 2012) while it was not consistent with the results of the study by Kashfi (Kashfi et al., 2016).
According to the results, mean score of the students' nutritional behavior was 80.58 ± 51.3 and 58.21% of students were in a positive condition. According to the study by Pezhmankhah in Tehran, 67.50% of the medical students and 58.50% of the non-medical students were in a relatively desirable situation with regard to their religious attitude (Pezhmankhah Sh et al., 2011). Nejat found that the status of nutritional behavior was weak in 29% of the students living in the dormitory (Nejat et al., 2008). Given that almost the majority of students are dormitory residents, travel between cities, and are away from their family, they are at high risk for food poisoning. So, it is essential to pay more attention to this issue and increase the individuals' awareness about the unsafe nutritional behaviors.
The results showed statistical significant relationship between gender and the nutritional behavior score. Results of the studies by Iesazadeh (Iesazadeh et al., 2018), Bahadori-Monfared (Bahadori-Monfared et al., 2015), and Hosseyni Esfahani (Hosseyni Esfahani et al., 2008) were consistent with our findings. Differences in the emotional structure between men and women lead to different dietary approaches. The importance of appearance for women and the media pressure often lead to women's increased attention to healthy eating. University of Medical Sciences, as a leading organization for community health and creation of healthy lifestyle culture in young people should plan and make more effective policies in this regard. The results showed that a significant statistical relationship between religious attitude and nutritional behavior. People with high religious attitude had nutritional behavior in accordance with Islamic guidelines. This finding was confirmed in the studies by Iesazadeh (Iesazadeh et al., 2018) and Golnaz (Golnaz et al., 2010). The religious instructions on how to eat, drink, and use divine blessings are among the most important categories of Islamic lifestyle. Undoubtedly, healthy eating and conforming to Islamic standards play a significant role in having a healthy body and soul. As limitations of this study, we could not determine one variable of religious attitude as the causative factor of change in nutritional behavior. In other words, this correlation does not equal causation.
Conclusion
Regarding the correlation between religiosity and nutritional behavior in planning for nutritional behavior enhancement interventions in students, Islamic religious orders in the field of nutrition should be further emphasized. In this regard, nutrition workshops are recommended by
religious experts to promote the nutritional behaviors of students in accordance with Islamic recommendations and standards.
Acknowledgements
We thank all the students participating in this research and all the staffs of Shahid Sadoughi University of medical sciences, Yazd for supporting this research.
Conflict of Interest
There was no conflict of interest in this study.
Authors' contributions
Nadjarzadeh A and Marzban A participated to the conception and designing the study. Marzban A, Barzegaran M, and Karimi-Nazari E participated to drafting of manuscript: Barzegaran M, Karimi-Nazari E participated to data gathering and case selection. All authors read the manuscript and verified the final version of manuscript.

References
Bahadori-Monfared A, Keramati A-A, Moazzami-Sahzabi J, Mohamadi F & Farsar A-R 2015. The impact of education on nutritional behavior change among clients of Sardar-Jangal health center in 2012. Community health. 1 (1): 62-68.
Eslami H, Marzban A, AkramiMohajeri F, Rezaei Z & Rafati Fard M 2015. Students' knowledge and attitude of hygiene and food safety at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd, Iran. Journal of community health research. 4 (3): 159-167.
Freedman MR & Connors R 2011. Point-of-purchase nutrition information influences food-purchasing behaviors of college students: a pilot study. Journal of the American dietetic association. 111 (5): S42-S46.
Golnaz R, Zainalabidin M, Mad Nasir S & Eddie Chiew F 2010. Non-Muslims’ awareness of Halal principles and related food products in Malaysia. International food research journal. 17 (3): 667-674.
Hashemi N, Sebar B & Harris N 2018. The relationship between cultural capital and lifestyle health behaviours in young people: a systematic review. Public health. 164: 57-67.
Hassanvand Amouzadeh M 2016. A study of relationship between religious attitude and quality of life among welfare organization clients. Journal of health. 6 (5): 488-497.
Hosseyni Esfahani F, Jazayeri A, Mirmiran P, Mehrabi Y & Azizi F 2008. Dietary patterns and their association with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors among Thehrani adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Journal of school of public health & institute of public health research. 6 (1): 23-36.
Iesazadeh N, Barzegaran M, Rahmanian V, Delavari S & Marzban A 2018. Relationship between Religious Attitude and Nutritional Behavior in in High School Students. Journal of medicine and cultivation. 27: 23-33.
Kashfi SM, Yazdankhah M, Heydarabadi AB, Jeihooni AK & Tabrizi R 2016. The relationship between religious attitude and mental health in students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Journal of research on religion & health. 1 (3): 33-40.
Kazemianmogadam K & Mehrabizadeh M 2011. The relationship between religious attitude with happiness and mental health of female and male students of Islamic Azad University of Behbahan Branch. Psychology and religion. 2 (4): 174-175.
Khan A, Khan SR & Burton NW 2019. Missing breakfast is associated with overweight and obesity in Bangladeshi adolescents. Acta paediatrica. 108 (1): 178-179.
Khodaveisi M, Omidi A, Farokhi S & Soltanian AR 2016. Dietary Behavior Status And Its Predictors Based On The Pender`s Health Promotion Model Constructs Among Overweight Women referred to Fatemieh hospital clinics in Hamedan, 2014. Journal of nursing education. 5 (2): 31-39.
Khodayarifard M, Shahabi R & Zardkhane S 2010. Relation Between Religious Attitude and Marital Satisfaction in Female Students. Family research. 3 (10): 1-10.
Lotfabadi H & Norozi V 2010. An Investigation on the Attitudes of Iranian High School and Pre-university Students to Globalization and Their Impact on Their Values and Their Religious and National Identity. Educational innovations. 3 (9): 88-119.
Marzban A, Barzegaran M, Delavari S, Marzban H & Rahmanian V 2018. Attitudes and behaviors of people in Bandar- Abbas city about herbal medicine consumption in diabetes. Iranian journal of diabetes and metabolism. 17 (6): 300-306.
Marzban A, Rezaei Z, Karkhane M, Marzban H & Eslami H 2017. Surveying the knowledge, attitude and performance of lactating women of Yazd city about heavy metals transmitted from breast milk. HOZAN; a Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2 (2): 1-10.
Nejat N, Kashaninia Z & Memarian R 2008. Healthy behaviors of female teenagers living in orphanage centers and living with their families. Journal of hayat. 14 (1): 49-59.
Paiva CE, Paiva BSR, Yennurajalingam S & Hui D 2014. The Impact of Religiosity and Individual Prayer Activities on Advanced Cancer Patients’ Health: Is There Any Difference in Function of Whether or Not Receiving Palliative Anti-neoplastic Therapy? Journal of religion and health. 53 (6): 1717-1727.
Pezhmankhah Sh, Moshtagheshgh Z, Alavimajd H & Seyfi B 2011. Comparison of Nutritional Behaviors of Students in Two Medical and Non-Medical Sciences Universities of Tehran Universities. Journal of nursing and midwifery faculty. 11 (10): 71-78.
Rejali M & Mostaejeran M 2012. Religious attitudes of freshmen at school of health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Journal of health system research. 2 (8): 314-319.
Rezaee H, Servat FL, Marzban H, Marzban A & Shirdeli M 2018. The impact of education on knowledge, attitude and practice about Food Poisoning in students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd. Iran. Toloo-e-behdasht. 17 (3): 39-51.
Salehi A, Harris N, Coyne E & Sebar B 2016. Perceived control and self-efficacy, subjective well-being and lifestyle behaviours in young Iranian women. Journal of health psychology. 21 (7): 1415-1425.
Tavan B, Jahani F, Seraji M & A M-B 2011. The relationship between religious attitude and mental health among students of Arak University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Arak University of medical sciences. 4 (13): 27-34.
Yazdkhasti F, Ahmadi H & Arizi H 2016. The causal model of the relationship between religious attitude, happiness, pleasure and mental health in students. Educational psychology studies. 20 (22): 157-175.
Zakavi AA, Hosseini SH, Azadbakht M, Mohammadpour RA & Jalahi H 2008. Religious attitude of students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2006-2007. Journal of Mazandaran University of medical sciences. 18 (66): 87-91.
Zamanian A, et al. 2013. Evaluating the nutritional status of dormitory resident students in Shahid Beheshti University of medical science. Scientific journal of Ilam University of medical sciences.. 21 (3): 109-117.

 
Type of article: orginal article | Subject: public specific
Received: 2018/07/17 | Accepted: 2018/11/27 | Published: 2019/11/1

References
1. Bahadori-Monfared A, Keramati A-A, Moazzami-Sahzabi J, Mohamadi F & Farsar A-R 2015. The impact of education on nutritional behavior change among clients of Sardar-Jangal health center in 2012. Community health. 1 (1): 62-68.
2. Eslami H, Marzban A, AkramiMohajeri F, Rezaei Z & Rafati Fard M 2015. Students' knowledge and attitude of hygiene and food safety at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd, Iran. Journal of community health research. 4 (3): 159-167.
3. Freedman MR & Connors R 2011. Point-of-purchase nutrition information influences food-purchasing behaviors of college students: a pilot study. Journal of the American dietetic association. 111 (5): S42-S46.
4. Golnaz R, Zainalabidin M, Mad Nasir S & Eddie Chiew F 2010. Non-Muslims’ awareness of Halal principles and related food products in Malaysia. International food research journal. 17 (3): 667-674.
5. Hashemi N, Sebar B & Harris N 2018. The relationship between cultural capital and lifestyle health behaviours in young people: a systematic review. Public health. 164: 57-67.
6. Hassanvand Amouzadeh M 2016. A study of relationship between religious attitude and quality of life among welfare organization clients. Journal of health. 6 (5): 488-497.
7. Hosseyni Esfahani F, Jazayeri A, Mirmiran P, Mehrabi Y & Azizi F 2008. Dietary patterns and their association with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors among Thehrani adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Journal of school of public health & institute of public health research. 6 (1): 23-36.
8. Iesazadeh N, Barzegaran M, Rahmanian V, Delavari S & Marzban A 2018. Relationship between Religious Attitude and Nutritional Behavior in in High School Students. Journal of medicine and cultivation. 27: 23-33.
9. Kashfi SM, Yazdankhah M, Heydarabadi AB, Jeihooni AK & Tabrizi R 2016. The relationship between religious attitude and mental health in students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Journal of research on religion & health. 1 (3): 33-40.
10. Kazemianmogadam K & Mehrabizadeh M 2011. The relationship between religious attitude with happiness and mental health of female and male students of Islamic Azad University of Behbahan Branch. Psychology and religion. 2 (4): 174-175.
11. Khan A, Khan SR & Burton NW 2019. Missing breakfast is associated with overweight and obesity in Bangladeshi adolescents. Acta paediatrica. 108 (1): 178-179.
12. Khodaveisi M, Omidi A, Farokhi S & Soltanian AR 2016. Dietary Behavior Status And Its Predictors Based On The Pender`s Health Promotion Model Constructs Among Overweight Women referred to Fatemieh hospital clinics in Hamedan, 2014. Journal of nursing education. 5 (2): 31-39.
13. Khodayarifard M, Shahabi R & Zardkhane S 2010. Relation Between Religious Attitude and Marital Satisfaction in Female Students. Family research. 3 (10): 1-10.
14. Lotfabadi H & Norozi V 2010. An Investigation on the Attitudes of Iranian High School and Pre-university Students to Globalization and Their Impact on Their Values and Their Religious and National Identity. Educational innovations. 3 (9): 88-119.
15. Marzban A, Barzegaran M, Delavari S, Marzban H & Rahmanian V 2018. Attitudes and behaviors of people in Bandar- Abbas city about herbal medicine consumption in diabetes. Iranian journal of diabetes and metabolism. 17 (6): 300-306.
16. Marzban A, Rezaei Z, Karkhane M, Marzban H & Eslami H 2017. Surveying the knowledge, attitude and performance of lactating women of Yazd city about heavy metals transmitted from breast milk. HOZAN; a Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2 (2): 1-10.
17. Nejat N, Kashaninia Z & Memarian R 2008. Healthy behaviors of female teenagers living in orphanage centers and living with their families. Journal of hayat. 14 (1): 49-59.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


© 2015 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Nutrition and Food Security

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb